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Monaco
Monaco has been ruled by the Grimaldi clan since 1297, when François Grimaldi captured the fortress protecting the city, disguised as a monk. The only exception was during the period 1789 - 1814, when Monaco was under French control. After the Congress of Vienna, Monaco became a protectorate of Sardinia until 1860. Monaco's sovereignty was recognized by the Franco-Monegasque Treaty of 1861.

The prince was absolute until the Constitution was signed in 1911. In July 1918, it signed an agreement which gave France a limited responsibility to protect Monaco. The agreement meant that Monaco's policy would be aligned with French political, military and economic interests.

A new constitution was signed in 1962 which abolished capital punishment, provided for female suffrage and establish a Supreme Court order to ensure legal certainty.
In 1993, Monaco became an official member of the United Nations.
In 2002, it signed a new treaty between France and Monaco as Monaco's independence secured even if there is no heir to the throne.

Since 1911, Monaco has been governed as a constitutional monarchy with the prince as head of state. The Prime Minister is the executive power, he manages a government on 4 people. The Prime Minister is a French citizen appointed by the prince among candidates proposed by the French authorities.

After the 1962 Constitution sharing the prince's power with the tokammerede National Council, which is elected for five years at a time.
Town Monaco is ruled by the council with 15 elected members headed by the mayor.

Monaco is in the Vatican the world's second smallest country. It is located on the Mediterranean Sea, near the Italian border and is surrounded by France on three sides.

Monaco consists almost entirely of urban area. Monaco is divided into four sections (quartiers), Monaco-Ville (Old Town), La Condamine (port area), Monte Carlo (prince residential and casino) and Fontvieille (newly built). The highest point in Monaco Mont Agel (140 m).
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