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|Grand Duchy of Luxembourg
Grand Duchy of Luxembourg is a small country in northwestern Europe, it is bordered by Belgium in the south, Germany to the east and the south of France.
The recorded history of Luxembourg begins with the construction of the castle of Luxembourg in the Middle Ages. Around this castle evolved gradually a community. This urban community was later the center of a small but strategically important country at the crossroads between Germany, France and the Netherlands.
Congress of Vienna in 1815 made formal Luxembourg to an independent Grand Duchy in personal union with the Netherlands under house Nassau-Oranien. Luxembourg was part of the German Confederation from 1815, and from 1842 by the German customs union. As federal fortress was dukedom large one Prussian garrison. When disengaging Belgium, Netherlands, Luxembourg lost more than half its territory, but instead got a more independent position. After the Prussian victory in the Austro-Prussian war dissolved the German Confederation in 1866.
Under the leadership of Prussia became the North German Confederation was founded as a federal state. Although not included Luxembourg remained Prussian troops stationed there. Before the war the Prussian Prime Minister Otto von Bismarck signaled to Napoleon III that France could annex Luxembourg if they interfered in the war between Prussia and Austria. After the war, he still managed to prevent this, as the London Protocol declared Luxembourg as neutral in 1867. Luxembourg achieved full independence in 1890 when the Dutch King William III died. As his daughter Wilhelmina succeeded him as monarch of the Netherlands, the personal union dissolved, as only male succession law was applicable in Luxembourg.
Luxembourg was occupied by Germany during both the First and Second World Wars. This led to the Luxembourg left nøytralitetsprinisippet her and was one of the most basic powers in international and regional organizations such as the UN, EU and NATO. Luxembourg is one of the EU's six founding member states.
Luxembourg is a constitutional monarchy. In the Constitution of 1868 is the executive power exercised by the Grand Duke and his government.
Luxembourg is one of the smallest nations in Europe. It is ranked # 166 countries on the list of the world's countries by zone. The country's area is approximately. 2586 km ².
The northern part of the country, forming part of the Ardennes consists of hills and low mountains, with Buurgplaz as the highest point with its 559 meters. The rest of the country is also hilly.
Luxembourg's eastern border is formed by the rivers Moselle, Sûre and Our.
The capital of Luxembourg is the largest city in the country. Other cities are vikige Esch-sur-Alzette (or simply Esch), southwest of the capital, Echternach, which is located on the German border in the east.
As a small state, most of the population of Luxembourg from the large neighboring countries. It paid three languages, German and French, as well as the local Lëtzebuergesch, which is a local variant of German with many French loanwords. Lëtzebuergesch the official language next to French and standard German in 1984.
Luxembourg's population is very powerful language. Those who have French as their mother tongue also learn fluent German and vice versa. There are also Portuguese and Italian-speaking minorities in the country.
German press is the primary language, while French has traditionally been used by the state administration. Public information is available in French and German.
Most luxembourgere are Catholics.