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Canada's motto is from sea to sea is geographically somewhat imprecise. In addition to the country's coastlines of the Atlantic and Pacific, Canada has a third coastal line of the Arctic Ocean, which means that no country in the world has such a long coastline.
In the south, Canada has a 8892 km long border with the United States. To the north lies the Arctic islands within 800 km from the North Pole. On the other side of the Arctic Ocean, Canada has Russia as its neighbor.
Because of the harsh northern climate, only 12% of the land suitable for agriculture. Thus, where most of the country's 27 million inhabitants within a few hundred miles of the southern border where the climate is milder, a long thin belt that stretches from the Atlantic to the Pacific.
If you fly over Manitoba or northern Ontario summer will see more water than land: large and small lakes, so many that it is impossible to count them. It has been estimated that Canada has one seventh of the world's fresh water sources. In addition to the Great Lakes, which it shares with the United States, Canada has many large rivers and lakes.
Canada is divided into seven regions, each with very different topography and climate.
Pacific Coast (Pacific Coast) - By Canadian regions is British Columbia's coast, with deep fjords, protected by Vancouver Island to the Pacific storms, which has the most moderate Kilma with warm, moist air currents from the Pacific Ocean.
The west coast of Vancouver Island are unusually heavy rain that gives it a temperate rain forest climate. Although it does not contain the diverse tropical rainforest island's west coast has the oldest and tallest trees in Canada: 1300-year-old red cedar and Douglas Gran which is 90 m high.
The Cordillera - From British Columbia to just east of the Alberta border are young country with rugged mountains and high plateaus. One can see the geological evidence of recent volcanism in the Garibaldi Provincial Park in southern British Columbia and the Mount Edziza in the north.
Rocky Mountains, Coastal Mountains and other areas that go from north to south, made major structural problems for the builders of the trans-continental railway and highways. However, not Canada's highest peaks in the Rocky Mountains but in the St. Elias Mountains, which is the continuation of the Cordillera (Spanish for mountain), and extends north into the Yukon and Alaska. The highest peak in Canada, Mount Logan (6050 m), rises in a vast area covered by ice in the south-western corner of the Yukon, the largest icecap south of the Arctic Circle.
Inland, British Columbia varies from alpine areas covered with snow to the valleys where it reigns desert-like conditions. On the leeward side of the mountains, for example, there occurred a rain shadow effect that forces farmers in the Okanagan Valley to irrigate their orchards and vineyards.
Prairie - Driving across the prairies is to see endless fields of wheat and canola that ripen under a sky that seems to last forever. Prairie in Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba are among the richest grain-producing areas in the world.
But even here there are surprises. If you leave the main road at Brooks in Alberta and drive north, you come to the Red Deer River Valley. Here, during the desert-like conditions, water and wind created strange sandstone formations called "hoodoos." The same forces of erosion have uncovered some of the largest concentrations of dinosaur fossils in the world.
Alberta is Canada's leading producer of petroleum. Sedimentary rocks under the prairie has significant deposits of oil, natural gas and potassium.
The Canadian Shield (The Canadian Shield) - A vast inland sea called Hudson Bay extends into the heart of Canada, and this bay is surrounded by a mountainous area called the Canadian Shield. This is Canada's geographical features and stretches east to Labrador, in the south to Kingston on Lake Ontario and the north-west as far as the Arctic Ocean.
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