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Afghanistan, officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country on the border between Central Asia and South Asia. It is bordered by Pakistan, Iran, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan and China. Three-quarters of the country is inaccessible mountain areas.
Afghanistan, which means' Afghans' land ', has been an ancient focal point of the Silk Road and migration. The country has an important geostrategic location in that it connects the East, South, West and Central Asia, and has been home to various peoples through the ages. The region has been a target of various invaders since antiquity, including the ancient Macedonians led by Alexander the Great, Muslim armies, the Mongols and others. Afghanistan has also served as an educational place for many kingdoms such as the Greco-Bactrian kingdom, Kush Kingdom, heftalittene, Samanids, Ghaznavid Empire, Timurid dynasty and others.

Afghanistan has continental climate with hot summers and cold winters. It is very cold winters in the central areas, the mountains of northeast (around Nuristan) and the Wakhan Corridor. In these areas is the average temperature in January during ÷ 15 ° C. In the opposite case, the hot summers in the low-lying areas of Sistan Basin of the southwest, Jalalabad Basin in the east and along the Amu Darya Turkestanslettene River in the north, where temperatures average is above 35 ° C in July.

Climatic sets belonging to the southern parts of the country the subtropical zone where the cultivation of date palms is possible, while North is located in the temperate zone. The temperature difference is the greatest in the world: It varies between ÷ 50 ° C and 53 ° C. In 2000 suffered half the population under frequent and drought. Afghanistan is regularly shaken by small earthquakes, mainly in the northeastern part of the Hindu Kush.
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