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Brazil is South America's largest state and the fifth largest in the world, both in population and in area. It is the only American country where Portuguese is the official language and it's lusofone country in the world.

The climate of Brazil comprises a wide range of weather conditions across a large area with a varied topography, but most of the country is tropical. According to the Köppen climate classification covers Brazil five major climatic subtypes: tropical rainforest climate, tropical, semiarid, highland tropical, temperate and subtropical climates. The different climatic conditions produce environments ranging from equatorial rainforests in the north and semi-arid deserts in the northeast, to temperate coniferous forests in the south and tropical savannas in central Brazil. Many regions have starkly different microclimates.

Although most of Brazil is located in the tropics, staying more than 60 percent of the population in areas that are cooler, either because of the altitude, wind from the ocean or polar fronts. While the coastal cities of Rio de Janeiro, Recife and Salvador can be extremely hot, the towns on the plateau, such as Sao Paulo, Brasilia and Belo Horizonte have milder climate and the southern cities of Porto Alegre and Curitiba have mild winters.

Despite the popular image of the Amazon as a region of intense heat, temperatures of over 32 ° C actually rare. The annual mean temperature in the region is 22-26 ° C, with little variation between the warmest and coldest months. The hottest part of Brazil to the northeast, where temperatures of over 38 ° C are frequently recorded during the dry season between May and November. Along the Atlantic coast from Recife to Rio de Janeiro average temperature ranges from 23-27 ° C. In the higher elevations inland temperatures are lower, 18 to 21 ° C. South of Rio is more defined seasons and magnitude of temperature fluctuations significantly wider, with an annual average between 17 and 19 ° C.

Brazil's most intense rain falls around the mouth of the Amazon near the city of Belém, and also in the upper reaches of the Amazon, where more than 2,000 millimeters of rain falls each year. Most of Brazil has moderate rainfall of between 1,000 and 1,500 millimeters per year, most of which comes between December and April. The driest part of the country is in the Northeast, where rainfall is erratic and very high evaporation rate, making it difficult to grow crops.

Brazil's large territory consists of several different ecosystems, such as the Amazon Rainforest, recognized for having the greatest biological diversity in the world where the Mata Atlântica and Cerrado contains the greatest diversity. To the south is growing forests of Araucaria under temperate conditions. The rich wildlife of Brazil reflects the variety of natural habitats. Scientists estimate that the total number of plant and animal species in Brazil could be closer to four million.

Larger mammals include puma, jaguar, ocelot, rare bush dogs, and foxes; navel pigs, tapirs, anteaters, sloths, possums and armadillos found in large numbers. There are plenty of deer in the south, and many species of monkeys are located west of the north. Concern for the environment has grown in step with the global interest in environmental issues.
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