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Bosnia and Herzegovina is divided between two climate zones. The central and northern parts of the country inland continental climate with relatively hot summers and cold winters, while the southern parts of the country has a typical Mediterranean climate.

The country is mostly mountainous and is centrally located in the Dinaric Alps. The northeastern part of the country extends into the southern parts of the Pannonian plains, while the southern part of the country bordering the Adriatic Sea. The country has only 20 kilometers of coastline around the town of Neum in the Herzegovina-Neretva County and is locked between Croatian territory and territorial waters.

Large cities are the capital Sarajevo, Banja Luka, Bijeljina, Srebrenica, Tuzla, Zenica and Mostar Almost 50% of Bosnia and Herzegovina is forested. The largest forests are central and in eastern and western Bosnia. The northern part of Bosnia has very fertile agricultural land along the river Sava.

Bosnia-Herzegovina has a varied climate where the weather can change greatly over short distances. Low pressure in the Mediterranean poured mild and moist air into the mountains in winter, and the west side is one of the wettest regions of Europe. Some places along the west side of the Dinaric Alps can get 4000 mm precipitation a year, while coastal towns only get about 1000 mm. Midsummer is mostly sunny, and the inner areas can get very high temperatures. Mostar, the Neretva, is one of the warmest cities in Europe.

The lower areas in the north has a climate that is more similar to Central Europe. Precipitation amounts decrease to the east, and winter is cloudy, even in the driest areas. Wind from the south to flow north and föhn capable of temperatures over 10 º C, or cold air (called kosavavind) from the Carpathians to flow southward. Western Mountains protect these areas from the cooler ocean air, so temperatures in the summer can be very high.

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