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Cyprus is an island nation in the Mediterranean, 50 km south of Turkey. Geographically, Cyprus is part of Anatolia, but culturally it has been European since ca. year 1600 BC

Foreign trade consists of imports of oil, food, Freemasonry and various textiles. Goods that are exported much of the clothing and shoes, fruits and vegetables. Trading partners are Italy, UK and USA.

Cyprus has been inhabited by humans for over 10,000 years. The oldest traces of human settlement found at Kalavassos, about 30 km east of Lemesos (Limassol) and is from around 5000 BC It's Levinger for residents: probably from Anatolia. Between 1100 and 1000 BC there were significant migrations in the eastern Mediterranean, mainly from ACHE, Pellopones and Crete to Asia Minor and Cyprus. The Greek-speaking population in Cyprus consider themselves descendants of those, and therefore believe to have lived in Cyprus for 3000 years.

Between 1000 BC and 58 BC Cyprus was dominated alternately by Phoenicians, Persians, Assyrians and Egyptians, also conquered by Alexander the Great. After him came ptolemeerne, until the Roman Empire took over in 58 fK By Roman division followed by Cyprus in the Eastern Roman Empire, which eventually became the Byzantine Empire. Cyprus Byzantine times lasted about 800 years, but marked by constant invasions and battles against the Arabs from North Africa.

During the Crusades, the island was conquered by Richard I of England in 1191. The Templars sold the island to Guy of Lusignan year, and his descendants ruled for 300 years, followed by the city-state Republic of Venice who conquered the island in 1489. The island was conquered by the Ottoman Empire in 1571.

In 1878, Britain signed an agreement with Turkey (Ottomans), the island was leased for 90 000 pounds a year. Cyprus still belonged to the Ottoman Empire, but Britain took over all administration and occupied the island militarily. Then Turkey joined forces with Germany and Austria in the First World War, Britain annexed the island as the crown colony.

The time from the British arrival to Cyprus until the 1950s must be seen in the context of Greece's protracted liberation struggle from the 1850s of the Turkish oppression. The Cypriot Enosis movement (union with Greece) has its origin in this. The election of Makarios III, Archbishop of Cyprus (independent) church was the start of a violent resistance movement. EOKA Liberation Militia was formed with Enosis goal. EOKA carried out operations against the British in four years, which ended in January 1960 Cyprus independence - without Enosis. Britain got to keep Sovereign Base Territory on the island consisting of a total of 256.4 km2.

Cypriots would have preferred Enosis with Greece, but it was unappealing to the Turkish Cypriot minority who did not want to be ruled from Greece. The British saw that independence was the best way to protect both Britain's own interests and Turkish interests. It gained a Greek-Cypriot President (Archbishop Makarios III) and a Turkish Cypriot vice president Facil Kutcuk.
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